European Gas Trading
In 2020, we estimate that the total volume of gas traded at European hubs was 70,512 TWh. This is a new annual trading volume record, 11% greater than the total of 63,395 TWh traded in 2019.
This 113-page report offers a comprehensive analysis of European gas markets, trading volumes, brokers and exchanges, regulatory issues and more. The market’s dimensions and trends are profiled in 20 tables and 37 charts. The report is structured as follows:
Chapter 1 – European Gas Markets Profile
This chapter profiles the physical market for gas in Europe and its relationship to other world markets. It reviews the absolute and relative volumes and trends in gas produced and consumed in Europe, and Europe’s main sources of external supply. It places these in the context of global production, flows and consumption of natural gas.
Chapter 2 – Regulation
This chapter outlines the legislative and regulatory framework within which European gas trading occurs. It reviews the EU regulations that created the competitive market for gas and established detailed rules for market operation. It also covers European regulation of energy trading activity and the financial trading regulations that impact energy trading.
Chapter 3 – Trading Activity
This chapter reviews the development of trading volumes, including both exchange and OTC activity, at Europe’s gas trading hubs. It presents the overall performance of European gas trading in 2020 and the individual performance of each of the main trading markets. It provides analysis of trading volumes in comparison to physical gas consumption, and of the distribution of trading activity and growth or contraction between exchange and OTC trading sectors.
Chapter 4 – Trading Markets
This chapter reviews the trading venues for natural gas in Europe, covering the OTC markets, exchange spot, futures, and options trading, and cleared OTC trading. It includes a detailed analysis of trading volumes in each of these sectors, and covers the characteristics, key features, and performance of the exchanges on which gas can be traded.
Chapter 5 – Gas Prices
This chapter starts with a survey of the market events that drove gas prices during 2020 and the first few months of 2021. It presents analysis of the recent development of price volatility and price spreads that are important for trading profit. It discusses the linkages between European and international gas prices through the LNG market.
Chapter 6 – Definitions and Conversion Factors
This chapter explains the units, unit conversion factors and currency conversions used in this report.
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